OFFICE OF THE NATIONAL SECURITY ADVISER
THE PRESIDENCY, FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF NIGERIA
Title Page ---------------------------------------------------
Abbreviations --------------------------------------------------- ii
Executive Summary --------------------------------------------------- iv
Terms of Reference ---------------------------------------------------
Opening Ceremony ---------------------------------------------------
Opening Remarks ---------------------------------------------------
Goodwill Messages ---------------------------------------------------
Declaration of Conference Open ----------------------------------------------
Closing Remarks ---------------------------------------------------
Plenary Session ---------------------------------------------------
Paper Presentation ---------------------------------------------------
List of Appendices ---------------------------------------------------
Paper One ---------------------------------------------------
Paper Two ---------------------------------------------------
Paper Three ---------------------------------------------------
Paper Four ---------------------------------------------------
Paper Five ---------------------------------------------------
Paper Six ---------------------------------------------------
Paper Seven ---------------------------------------------------
Paper Eight ---------------------------------------------------
Interactive Session ---------------------------------------------------
List of Participants ---------------------------------------------------
1. ADB - African Development Bank
2. ATA - Agricultural Transformation Agenda
3. AU - Africa Union
4. CBOs - Community Based Organisations
5. CORET - Confederation of Traditional Herder Organizations’
6. CSOs - Civil Society Organisations
7. DFID - Department for International Development
8. ECOWAP - ECOWAS Agricultural Plan
9. ECOWAS - Economic Community of West African States
10. EU - European Union
11. FAO - Food and Agriculture Organisation
12. FMARD - Federal Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development
13. FULDAN - Fulbe Development Association of Nigeria
14. GDP - Gross Domestic Product
15. GIS - Geographic Information System
15. IDP - International Development Partners
16. IFAD - International Fund for Agricultural Development
17. IGP - Inspector General of Police
18. LGAs - Local Government Areas
19. MACBAN - Miyetti Allah Cattle Breeders Association of Nigeria
20. MBOSCUDA - Mbororo Social and Cultural Development Association
21. MDA’s - Ministries, Departments and Agencies
22. MOFDA - Mobgal Fulbe Development Association
23. NASS - National Assembly
24. NSA - National Security Adviser
25. NCNE - National Commission for Nomadic Education
26. NGOs - Non-Governmental Organizations
27. NHRC - National Human Rights Commission
28. NLPD - National Livestock Projects Division
29. NGO’s - Non-Governmental Organizations
30. NSRP - Nigeria Stability and Reconciliation Programme
31. NVRI - National Veterinary Research Institute
32. ONSA - Office of the National Security Adviser
33. PARE - The Pastoral Resolve
34. RAIP - Regional Agriculture Investment Plan
35. TOR - Terms of Reference
36. TPI - Tabital Pulaaku International
37. RBM - Reseau Billital Maroobhe
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY OF THE FINAL REPORT ON THE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON SECURITY AND DEVELOPMENT CHALLENGES OF PASTORALISM IN WEST AND CENTRAL AFRICA
The National Security Adviser (NSA) concerned by the rising violence and insurgency in the country, and to avoid exploitation of the conflict between pastoralist and crop farmers by violent groups, organized a 3 day “International Conference on Security and Development Challenges of Pastoralism in West and Central Africa” with an interactive session with community leaders and stake holders in all the conflict prone zones. The theme of the conference is “The Role of Pastoralists in Preventing Insurgency and Conflicts for Sustainable Peace and National Security”. The conference was held at Kaduna from the 23rd to 25th June 2014.
The goal of the conference was the development of a comprehensive and widely acceptable strategy for peace, security and stability in West and Central Africa with particular emphasis on Nigeria. The objectives of the conference were to:
1. Identify key challenges facing pastoraralists and other stakeholders and their consequencies on national security;
2. Bring actors among the pastoralists, farmers, other natural resource users, the civil society, faith-based organizations, the media and security agencies towards finding a lasting solution to the security challenges associated with pastoralism in Nigeria and other West and Central African countries;
3. Generate practical and actionable recommendations that will be implemented by Ministries, Departments and Agencies of Government and other development partners, to improve the pastoralist system of livestock production to stem the aggravating security challenges associated with resource use, resource management, cattle rustling and banditry;
4. Mobilize all stakeholders to gain the confidence and co-operation of pastoralists and farmers in tackling the menace of terrorism, insurgency and communal conflicts in the country; and
5. Share common experiences and best practices between Nigeria and the neighbouring countries like Cameroun, Chad and Niger Republics.
II. THE CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS:
1. As part of the design to successfully host the conference, the National Security Adviser set up a Planning Committee that worked out the modalities for the organisation, mobilisation and conduct of the conference. To accomplish its task, the Committee invited major stakeholders in government and pastoralists organizations West and Central African regions, Governments of several African countries where pastoralism is practised. In Nigeria, Pastoralists and Farmer organizations, Representatives of ethnic organizations/unions, faith based organizations, civil society organizations, development experts, professionals in the livestock sector, international development partners and other stake holders were invited.
2. The President of the Federal Republic of Nigeria represented by the Vice President, the Speaker of the House of Representatives, the Governor of Niger state and Chairman Northern Governors Forum, the Governor of Kaduna State, the Acting Governor of Taraba State, the Deputy Governors of Kano, Plateau and Zamfara state, Distinguished Senators and Members of the House of Representatives, the Minister of Agriculture and Rural Development, the Minister of Water Resources, the Minister of Special Duties, the Minister of State for Defence, Service Chiefs, Head of Para-Military agencies, senior civil servants, members of the Diplomatic Corps, the ECOWAS Commission, the European Union (EU), the Food and Agricultural Organisation (FAO), International Development Partners, traditional rulers, academicians and other professionals, the media as well as leaders from among the pastoralists and farmers from Nigeria, Cameroon, Chad, Niger, Mali and Senegal were all present.
3. The Conference chaired by the Honourable Minister of Agriculture and Rural Development Dr Akinwumi Adesina, was declared open by the President, His Excellency Dr Goodluck Ebele Jonathan GCFR represented by the Vice President, His Excellency Arc. Mohammed Namadi Sambo, GCON.
Eight papers were presented in the 1st and 2nd days of the conference after the opening ceremonies. Case studies of pastoralism in four countries namely: Nigeria, Central Africa, Cameroon and Kenya were also presented and discussed. Resource persons were drawn from high calibre academics and professional groups who are experts in their fields.
1. Discussions and interaction held at the conference were incisive and revealing. Concerned with the frequent conflict between pastoralists and farmers leading to loss of lives and property, the growing incidents of cattle rustling, the increasing constraints faced by transhumance populations in terms of grazing and watering points, the changing patterns of resource management as well as the growing trends of banditry, terrorism and insurgency, youths unemployment, inadequacy of basic infrastructural facilities such as water and sanitation, human and veterinary clinics, poor funding of nomadic education programme as well as conflict with state actors in the maintenance of law and order, the conference affirmed its commitment to examine and address the dynamics of these issues as well as their security and developmental implications for Nigeria and the West and Central African Regions.
2. The interactive session also demonstrated the importance of consultation, dialogue, constructive engagement in resolving conflict between pastoralists and farmers as an enduring measure for an amicable resolution of conflict.
3. The conference also discussed extensively on the challenges of implementing the ECOWAS protocol on Transhumance of Livestock by member countries and the challenges associated with it due to the porous nature of our borders and limited personnel to man them.
4. The urgent need for governments at all levels to take positive and necessary measures to pre-empt, manage and amicably resolve conflicts in a timely manner as they occur. The role of Governors, Local Government administration, Judicial officers, traditional and community leaders, youth groups, women groups, religious leaders are germane and important to maintaining law and order, ensure inter-ethnic harmony and restoring public confidence in the sincerity and ability of government to protect the lives and properties of its citizens.
5. The Federal and State Governments, particularly in the conflict prone states must take concrete steps to punish perpetrators of conflict within the provisions of the law to serve as deterrence to potential offenders.
6. The apathy on the part of the citizenry to volunteer information on criminal elements poses a serious challenge towards law enforcement. Active community engagement and cooperation in law enforcement is required for peace and stability. Security agencies are to reinforce steps to guarantee confidentiality of information shared. Security agents should design and put in place mechanisms to sustain public confidence in law enforcement agencies and judicial process.
7. Some of the major causes of the current security challenges arising from conflicts between pastoralists and farmers are:
i) Inadequate infrastructural facilities for grazing in designated grazing areas/grazing reserves;
ii) Weak justice system and the tendency to exploit pastoralist and rural farmers by some security elements and judicial officers;
iii) Inadequate involvement of traditional and community based leaders, as in conflict resolution mechanism;
iv) An emerging culture of intolerance, hate, bitterness and violence fuelled by political leaders/elites by promoting religious and ethnic sentiments;
v) Non-implementation of findings/recommendation of previous judicial commissions of enquiry;
vi) The phenomenon of indigene/settler syndrome that creates animosity and heightens tension between communities;
vii) Failure to support and compensate pastoralists in the face of conflict and natural disasters;
viii) Inadequate access to qualitative and functional education by pastoralist’s children to acquire vocational skills; and
ix) Ecological factors, climate change and consequent demographic movements into the geographical zones.
a). The Conference firmly believes that if the recommendations contained in this report are implemented to the fullest, most of the problems as associated with the current security challenges between pastoralist and farmers would be minimized to the barest minimum, if not completely eliminated.
a). We wish to extend our appreciation to the President and Commander in-Chief of the Armed Forces of the Federal Republic of Nigeria, His Excellency, Dr Goodluck Ebele Jonathan GCFR, and the National Security Adviser for hosting the conference.
b). The Vice President, His Excellency, Arc. Mohammed Namadi Sambo, GCON deserves special commendation for his encouragement and support during the opening ceremony.
c). We are also grateful to all the Governors, Ministers, Members of the National Assembly, Ministers, Members of the Diplomatic Corps, International Development Partners, the ECOWAS Commission, the European Union, the Food and Agriculture Organization, Traditional Rulers, Religious Leaders, members of the academia, leadership of pastoralist and farmer organization that graced the occasion or sent representatives.
d). The role of the members of the planning and organizing committee is well acknowledged and commended
e). The staff of the Conference Secretariat are equally appreciated for their hard work and commitment throughout the duration of the conference for the important roles of taking the proceedings of the conference, which culminated into the preparation of this report.
f). The leading role played by all the security agencies towards the successful hosting of the conference is gratefully acknowledged and appreciated.
Mohammed Sambo Dasuki
National Security Adviser to the President
2nd July, 2014.
REPORT ON THE PROCEEDINGS OF THE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON SECURITY AND DEVELOPMENT CHALLENGES OF PASTORALISM IN WEST AND CENTRAL AFRICA
1.1. In response to the security challenges being encountered in the country especially insurgency in parts of the country, inter-ethnic and inter-communal conflicts and resource use conflicts, the Office of the National Security Adviser to the President, Abuja, Nigeria organized a 3 day International Conference on Security and Development Challenges of Pastoralism in West and Central Africa from 23rd – 25th June, 2014 in Kaduna.
1.2. The theme of the conference was the “The Role of Pastoralists in Preventing Insurgency and Conflicts for Sustainable Peace and National Security”. The well-attended conference attracted eminent personalities and experts and professional groups from all walks of life. At the opening ceremony, The President, His Excellency, Dr. Goodluck Ebele Jonathan GCFR was represented by the Vice President, His Excellency, Arc. Mohammed Namadi Sambo GCON who declared the conference open. Also present were the Honourable Speaker House of Representative; Rt. Hon. Aminu Waziri Tambuwal, the National Security Adviser; Mohammed Sambo Dasuki, Chairman Northern Governors Forum and Governor of Niger State; Dr Muázu Babangida Aliyu, Governor of Kaduna; Alhaji Muktar Ramalan Yero and the Ag. Governor of Taraba State Alhaji Garba Umar, the Deputy Governors of Plateau, Kano and Zamfara States, Honourable Ministers of Agriculture and Rural Development, Water Resources, Minister of State for Defence, the Minister of Special Duties, representatives of Minister of Education and Minister of Police Affairs, Service Chiefs and Heads of other security and para-military agencies. The National Human Rights Commission and other agencies of government were also present. International organizations like ECOWAS, FAO, EU, NSRP, DFID/NSRP and others were present or duly represented. Heads of Federal Agencies and Parastatals, the academia, serving and retired military and para-military officers, serving and retired Police Officers, delegations from Cameroun, Chad, Niger, Mali, Burkina Faso and Senegal, Women Groups, Traditional Rulers, the Clergy, Pastoralists and Farmer’s organizations such as, Miyetti Allah Cattle Breeders Association (MACBAN), Tabital Pulaaku International, (TPI) Confederation of Traditional Herders Organizations, (CORET) Reseau Billital Maroobhe, , Mbororo Social and Cultural Development Association (MBOSCUDA), Pastoral Resolve (PARE), , Fulbe Development Association of Nigeria (FULDAN), Mobgal Fulbe Development Association (MOFDA) , Kautal Hoore, Tiv, Birom, Afizere, Anaguta, Penada Bwatiye and other ethnic groups.
The conference was meant to develop a comprehensive and widely acceptable strategy for peace, security and stability in West and Central Africa. Specifically, the conference objectives were to:
i. Identify key challenges facing pasotaralists and other stakeholders and their consequencies on national security;
ii. Bring actors among the pastoralists, farmers, other natural resource users, the civil society, faith-based organizations, the media and security agencies towards finding a lasting solution to the security challenges associated with pastoralism in Nigeria and other West & Central African countries;
iii. Generate practical and actionable recommendations that will be implemented by MDAs, to improve the pastoral system in order to stem the aggravating security challenges associated with resource use, resource management, cattle rustling and banditry;
iv. Mobilize all stakeholders to gain the confidence and co-operation of pastoralists and farmers in tackling the menace of terrorism, insurgency and communal conflicts in the country; and
v. Share common experiences and best practices between Nigeria and the neighbouring countries.
3.0 OPENING CEREMONY:
The opening ceremony witnessed the presentation of speeches and goodwill messages some of which are highlighted below:
3.1 OPENING REMARKS:
i. The National Security Adviser (NSA) in his welcome address expressed his appreciation to all the distinguished personalities and stressed that the conference is organized as part of the genuine desire and felt need to urgently tackle the security challenges between the pastoralists and other resource users Nigeria and prevent violent actors from hijacking the conflict to further destabilise the polity. The NSA pointed this is part of the community engagement under the Soft Approach to Countering Terrorism and Violent Insurgencies rolled out by his office.
The NSA further noted that government was not unmindful of the fact that the pastoralists undertake seasonal movements basically in search of pasture, water and to escape from diseases and conflicts. The movements are also influenced by ecological, climatic factors and environmental factors related to their search for livelihoods across countries in the western and central Africa regions. However, the spade of recurring conflicts associated with this tradtionally and culturally known transhumance movements and the wider security implications now calls for collective action to adopt a turn-around strategy by taking a critical look at the challenges and its implications for national and regional security. The loss of lives, destruction of properties and high incidence of internally displaced persons are enormous and government at all levels would not allow this to continue.
The NSA charged participants therefore to discuss and come up with genuine and practicable steps to be taken collectively to address the intractable challenges once and for all to engender national, regional and continental development. He finaly commended The President of the Federal Republic of Nigeria for blessing the convening of the conference out of his genuine desire to ensure harmonious existence and appreciated the security agencies for their sustained support and collaboration in maintaining law and order.
ii. The Honourable Minister of Agriculture and Rural Development, Dr Akinwumi Adesina who was the Chairman of the occassion in his speech, noted that the theme of the conference was well thought-out and in tune with Agricultural Transformation Agenda. The Livestock sub-sector is critical in ensuring food security, which can only be attained under an atmosphere of peace and stability. The conference is therefore timely and visionary. He emphasised that transhumance movement was an age-long practice but today the wave of violence associated with it poses a very serious challenge with grevious implications that necessitate a gradual transformation of this mode of livestock production.
The Minister noted that government recognises the interplay of limiting factors in transhumance ranging from encroachment to inadequacy of infrastructural facilities in existing grazing reserves, blocked stock routes, climate change, desertification, population growth, rapid urbanisation as well as low level of extension services, meant that no meaningful development could be achieved under current system. There is need to continue to transform it into a more viable form. The problem associated with pastoralism he observed was a regional security issue and requires synergy and collaboration with sister African countries to curb the problems. He therefore proposed that the challenges would be minimised if not completely eliminated if the following measures were adopted.
a. Transforming pastoralism into an economic venture rather than a way of life for the nomads.
b. Use of Global Positioning System and Satellite uplink in tracking the position of animals to check transhumance movement of livestock and apprehend rustlers.
c. Undertake biometric registration of transhumance pastoralists with a view to obtaining and keeping a data bank of the groups and herds to aid the issuance of travelling certificate.
d. Development of a comprehensive livestock information system and the establishment of more grazing reserves to mitigate clashes between farmers and pastoralists.
iii. The Kaduna State Governor; Alhaji Mukhtar Ramalan Yero who was the Chief Host, observed that the ongoing aggressive urbanisation in most parts of the country had become a major threat not only to pastoralists but also to farmers, leading to a struggle for grazing areas and farmlands. He stated the gathering that the state government had embarked on an expansion of facilities in the grazing reserves and the provision of veterinary and livestock services and emphasised on the need to integrate the nomads to enhance their invaluable contribution to economic growth and national development. The Governor stressed that it was the responsibility of leaders at all levels to take proactive measures to control and resolve conflicts and commended the Inspector General of Police for setting up the Police Committee for Peace Building.
iv. The Niger State Governor and Chairman, Northern Governors Forum, His Excellency, Dr. Mu’azu Babangida Aliyu noted that pastoralist’s movements were necessitated by the desire to grow their stocks, which also poses serious challenges resulting in violent conflicts. He suggested that far-reaching policy measures needed to be taken to ensure that this movement is always checked and the pastoralists ultimately integrated. Other measures he recommended to be taken by states to address the emerging security challenges arising from pastoralists and farmers conflict, include:
a. Grazing Reserves and Stock Routes should be developed by putting all the required facilities to optimise livestock production and also be protected by gazetting and beaconing them.
b. Establishment of Ministries of Livestock Development at the state level to specifically handle livestock issues.
c. Government should encourage and support pastoralists to own land for the purposes of gradual sedentarisation.
d. Government at all levels to embark on mobilisation and advocy among pastoralists and farmers on the need for harmonious co-existence and restoration of the hitherto lost peaceful and symbiotic relationship between the two groups.
e. Provision of vocational skills to check over-dependence on livestock as the sole means of livelihood, and that
f. The Nomadic Education programme should be re-invigorated and strengthened through adequate funding to deliver on its mandate.
The Governor condemned the security challenges arising from the wave of violence and stressed that Boko Haram was not synonymous with Islam and thus extremism requires collective action to deal with.
v. The Honourable Speaker House of Representative in his address commended the Office of the National Security Adviser for organizing the conference and observed that the dimension of conflicts existing today between pastoralists and farmers was too brutal, violent and unheard of in the last two decades. He noted that government could not afford to allow it to continue unaddressed in the face of the numerous challenges and insecurity culminating from insurgency. While herders move around in search of water and pasture for their livestock to improve their livelihoods, the colouration of the conflicts between pastoralists and farmers as religious and ethnic had made the misunderstanding more explosive and too dangerous to be ignored. Considering the fact that the ECOWAS Protocol for free movement of citizens of member countries in search of legitimate livelihoods had been compromised in the face of insurgency, the Hon. Speaker emphasised that grazing reserves and stock routes should be protected to serve as buffer and thus limiting frequent contact between the two groups thereby minimising the incidences leading to displacement of persons and sacking of villages.
On the part of the media, the Honourable Speaker while calling for fair reporting while highlighting the core challenges so as to promote peaceful and harmonious co-existence, he urged stakeholders to critically examine the underlining issues with a view to recommending appropriate measures to curtail the upsurge and dimension the conflicts have assumed. He expressed the willingness of the National Assembly to make laws in line with the informed recommendations emanating from the conference.
3.2 GOODWILL MESSAGES BY STAKEHOLDERS:
i. His Royal Highness, the Emir of Zazzau, Dr. Shehu Idris who was represented by the Emir of Birnin Gwari, His Highness, Alhaji Zubairu Maigwari II said the continuous encroachment on grazing areas, cattle routes and watering points were some of the serious factors triggering conflicts between pastoralists and farmers. He then urged traditional rulers to pay greater attention to protecting the grazing reserves and stock routes to curb the incidences of violent conflicts.
ii. The National President of Miyetti Allah Cattle Breeders Association of Nigeria commended the government for having thought of the imperative to convene the conference to discuss the security challenges emanating from the wave of conflicts between pastoralists and farmers. He urged the conflicting groups to learn to co-exist and amicably resolve any conflict by tolerating one another. He lamented that the neglect of pastoralists and pastoralism by successive governments over the years was responsible for the current development and appealed for a greater attention to livestock development.
iii. The Chairman, Senate Committee on Defence, Senator Muhammadu Magoro, attributed the escalating cases of violence to migrating pastoralists and expressed the Senate’s great concern about the development and called for understanding and tolerance.
3.3 OPENING OF THE CONFERENCE:
His Excellency, President Goodluck Jonathan who was represented by the Vice President Arc. Mohammed Namadi Sambo, while declaring the conference opened observed that the timing of the conference was auspicious in view of the current security challenges in the country in particular and the West and Central African Religions in general. He acknowledged that pastoralism was as old as agriculture, but that climate change and other developmental challenges had aided in triggering stiff competition for available natural resources.
The President noted that the level and frequency of violent conflicts in some parts of the country was very alarming citing Kaduna, Benue, Taraba, Nasarawa and Plateau states as worse hit thereby constituting serious threat to security and national development. He highlighted that livestock production was a major means of income and wealth creation now being threatened by conflicts and cattle rustling. He emphasised that the agricultural sector had contributed an average of 40% to Gross Domestic Product (GDP) between 2011 and 2012 and currently employing about two thirds of the entire labour force and had sustained its position as the highest contributor to non-oil GDP, by contributing 47.17% in 2011 and 45.49% in 2012 respectively. The invaluable contribution of livestock to the nation’s GDP and national development, he noted were well documented and stressed that livestock breeding needed to be modernised and be seen more as a business that an age- long- tradition to be bequeathed from generation to generation.
The President assured that his administration as part of its transformation agenda will revolutionize and modernize the livestock sector for sustainable development and livelihoods. To this end, he said, the Federal Government had attracted investment for the Agricultural Transformation Agenda (ATA) amounting to $88.5m from the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) and $152.5m from the African Development Bank (ADB). He said dialogue must be used in the resolution of conflicts and assured the conference of the Federal Government’s readiness to address the conflicts associated with pastoralists and crop farmers, which currently formed a serious national security concern. He also pledged government’s commitment to implementing the recommendations from the conference towards the realisation of sustainable peace, unity and national security on the entire African continent. On this note, the conference was declared open.
3.4 CLOSING REMARKS:
The Chairman of the Conference Planning Committee, Ambassador Umar Farook Ka’oje in his remarks expressed appreciation to the National Security Adviser (NSA) for giving the Committee the opportunity to plan and organise the conference. That members of the Committee saw the seriousness with which the NSA took the matter and therefore they collectively handled the assignment as a call to national duty. He commended the foresight of the NSA in convening the conference in the face of the insecurity problems associated with the wave of conflicts across the country particularly violent conflicts between pastoralists and farmers. He urged participants to support the laudable initiative and take advantage of the forum to table all their perceived grievances to enable the government join hands with all the resource users to arrive at amicable and acceptable solutions to the unfortunate developments.
4.0 PLENARY SESSIONS:
The plenary sessions were first by presentation and discussion of commissioned papers in line with the conference objectives followed by an interactive session with selected stakeholders. While the former were taken on days 1 and 2 along with the opening ceremony, day 3 was devoted to an interactice session with stakeholders. The summary of the paper presentation are hereby presented as follows:
ECOWAS Strategic Action Plan for the Development of Livestock in West Africa and Cross-Border Transhumance: Implications for Security and Development by Dr. Viviane N. Iwar, Head of the Livestock Development at the ECOWAS Commission, Abuja.
The paper examined the mandate given to the ECOWAS as contained in Chapter IV, article 25 of the ECOWAS treaty which mandates the commission to develop all aspects of agriculture. This was to ensure food security, increase productivity, improve value addition and protect prices of export commodities. The paper further identified and discussed the RAIP goals and various programme as follows:
Regional Agriculture Investment Plan (RAIP)
RAIP GOALS: to modernize the agriculture sector to achieve food security in the perspective of regional integration through the following:
i. Promotion of strategic products for food security and promotion of sovereignty
ii. Promotion of an enabling environment for agric-business and agriculture development
iii. Reduction of vulnerability and promotion of the access to food for vulnerable population
iv. Governance, coordination and monitoring and implementation of the ECOWAS.
The paper maintain that RAIP programmes are in two categories, that is, RAIP programme I and II, each with expected output towards strategic action for the development of livestock.
The RAIP programme I
To ensure that West Africa is able to meet most of its food needs through the promotion of rice, maize and cassava.
To achieve regional imports of animal products and by products are substantially reduced through the livestock systems and animal product systems and chain.
To develop policies and strategies for the sustainable management of fisheries resources are defined and implemented.
RAIP programme II
On this part, it is to ensure that the business environment for agri-food chains are improved throughout the sub-region through the following:
Mmechanisms to help adaptation to climate variability, climate change and integrated management of shared resources are implemented at the regional level.
Information and decision support system is operational.
Strenthening the capabilities of regional stakeholders and institutions.
The paper further reviewed the livestock sector in West Africa and made some comparable country analysis with emphasis on Nigeria’s livestock sector as the basis to understanding the transhumance aspect challenges associated with pastoralism.It argues that the livestock sector does the following:
· Contributes to food and nutritional security;
· Provides livelihood in production, processing, marketing, storage, packaging and distribution;
· Is amenable to diversification, provides inputs for industry-organic fertilizer, leather, meat, milk etc.
· It is a source of draught power, transportation etc.
v Strengthened Veterinary Governance
The paper argues that strengthening veterinary governance has a lot of advantages that is capable of turning around the livestock sector in many ways such as:
ü Support production;
ü Promote trade in livestock and dairy;
ü Improve pastures and protect grazing lands/transhumance routes;
ü Promotion of public private partnerships;
ü Strengthening data management, research and training and
ü Support product transformation through science and technology.
· The promotion of the livestock, meat and dairy sub sectors is expected to achieve the following:
· Improve animal health, access to livestock feed and improve performance of indigenous breeds;
· Support security for transhumance and prevent/ resolve conflicts, this is through the development of Trans–border arrangement and controlling transhumance and to promote a regional transhumance;
· Structure the animal production sector via organizing and developing commercial activities, promotion of autonomous markets;
· Promotion, processing and transformation of livestock products while also promoting livestock intra-regional trade;
· Creation of a favourable business environment for the development of livestock, meat and dairy products, all to be achieved through the promotion of science and technology, promotion of insurance and financing schemes and promotion of gender and vulnerable persons involvement in the sector.
Perspective on harnessing Nigeria’s livestock potentials:
The equally discussed the ECOWAS strategic Action Plan for the development of livestock as it concerns Nigeria. While it identified the gaps in meat and milk within ECOWAS states and Nigeria, it then looks at what the strategic plan advocates for a better improvement by advocating for the following:
· A holistic approach to the improvement of the livestock sector, with emphasis on a gradual shift towards semi-intensification and intensification;
· The ECOWAS meat and milk value chain analysis report for Nigeria be looked at, with a view to implement the recommendation for suggested models adopted by industry;
· The ECOWAS transhumance decision and regulation be effectively implemented by member states;
· The use of transhumance certificate be enforced by member state;
· Effective and sensible implementation of the ECOWAS Free Movement Protocol;
· The implementation of the civilian component of the ECOWAS conflict prevention framework with a programme on facilitation of transhumance for security, that takes cognizance of GIS mapping, early warning and early response, identification of traceability delivery of quality veterinary services;
· Continuing participatory, multidisciplinary and inter-agency collaboration; and that since ECOWAS has a market of 300 million people, development of all livestock value chains in Nigeria would be useful for job creation, income generation and reduction of foreign exchange flight on imports.
The paper concluded by saying that a well organized livestock sector among ECOWAS member states has potential to support health and human security, alleviate poverty, create jobs and generate incomes and reduce poverty amongst the people in the region.
Insurgency, Terrorism, Cattle Rustling: Security Challenges to Pastoralism and Implications for National Security by Barr. A.B. Dikko, Honourable Attorney General of Kebbi State.
The paper began by identifying the UNDP human development report 1994, which presented the concept of human security to mean a broad concept – a process of widening the range of people’s choices. Human security he argues therefore to mean that people can exercise their choices safely and freely – and can be confident that the opportunities they seek today will not be lost tomorrow.
The paper identified two main aspects of human security:
· Safety from such chronic threats as hunger, disease and repression
· Protection from sudden and hurtful disruption in the pattern of daily life- whether in homes, in jobs or in communities.
The many threats to human security differing for individuals at different times, fall into seven main categories.
i) Economic insecurity
ii) Food insecurity
iii) Health insecurity
iv) Personal insecurity
v) Environmental insecurity
vi) Community and cultural insecurity
vii) Political insecurity
It is important that we bear in mind that pastoralist in Nigeria are not insurgents if we understand insurgency to mean “an act of fighting against instituted authority or the state”
No research/analysis has been undertaken into or of police investigation reports or security reports that will indicate legal challenges as to suggest what legal solution one could proffer for the consideration of a conference such as this.
In examining the security challenges of pastoralism and its implication in national security two of the challenges facing pastoralism today will need to be closely examined.
(a) Climate change whose major manifestation is recurring drought, and famine, and the trend of this dynamic towards increasing security in duration and magnitude
(b) Land as a resource: The dominant cause of conflict in relation to pastoralist in the last 20 years has been over access to grazing land and water.
Regional security and pastoralism
Pastoral issues are trans-boundary. Thus when it comes to issue of regional security there are issues that cannot be solved in isolation. There are, for instance, issues like animal diseases, marketing, proliferations of small arms, ethnic conflict etc which are all trans-boundary.
In areas where customary institutions are robust as they do in many parts of Nigeria and West African sub-region, development effort will wholly be best focused on supporting adaptation to new physical and political realities.
Security sector agencies and institution at the national and regional level need to cooperate and work out policies that take into considerations the pastoralists communities and their associations that provide leadership in implementing measures that will counter insurgency, terrorism and cattle rustling.
1) Review of legislation on land, land use, land control, and development to recognize the rights of pastoralist over land.
2) Legislation should be enacted on the protection of grazing reserve and cattle routes
3) State government in Nigeria should establish a separate government institutions that deal with pastoral issues.
4) There should be separate budgetary allocation to pastoral issues.
5) Legislation of environmental protection and standards should recognize, reflect and incorporate pastoralist good environment management practice.
6) Protocols, treaties should be promulgated recognizing regional patrol networks.
7) There should be ECOWAS patrols on movement of livestock across international boundaries in the region
8) ECOWAS member states should implement the treaty on the control of small arms and light weapons and
9) Capacity building for Pastoralist organizations and farmer organizations to adequately represent the interest of their members at local, regional and continental levels.
Pastoralism and Resource Use: Challenges in Development and Management by Prof. Jerome Gefu; Executive Director, National Animal Production Research Institute (NAPRI) ABU Zaria.
The potential of livestock to reduce poverty is enormous as livestock contributes to the livelihood of more than two third of the world’s rural poor and a significant minority of semii-urban poor.
The Zebu cattle is known to be the most dominant type found in the North West and North Eastern part of the country. However, due to the effects of climate change in recent years the “cattle belt” has steadily moved from the drier sub arid zone to the sub humid zone of Nigeria. Consequently states situated within the zone have recorded increased presence of pastoral producers in recent times with all the attendant resource-use competition and conflicts associated with land use.
Over 90% of Nigeria’s ruminant population is kept under transhumant pastoralism. This is occasioned by the seasonal alteration in the availability of fodder and water and well as the abundance of diseases including trypanosomiasis in the high risk areas where otherwise fodder and water abounds.
The rate at which pastoral resources are shrinking has precipitated serious conflict between crop and livestock producers. The reason why there has been such incidence of resource use conflict experienced in different parts of the country is associated with the mobile nature of this category of pastoralists. However many of them are settling where the natural and social environment is conducive and supportive of livelihood.
Some of the problems militating against government efforts at promoting livestock production through settled pastoralism include: social cultural beliefs and practice of herders; non regulation of herd/flock size of stock; poor stock marketing system; weak linkages between herders and other stakeholders; poor physical infrastructure; lack of dairy processing facilities among others. Possible solutions are feasible through commercialized pastoralism. This calls for a complete reorientation towards commercial production with a drive for profit making.
Non settling of pastoralists was largely responsible for the current conflicts with farmers and declining productivity of the livestock sub-sector. The situation is often further compounded as a result of weak provision of essential services including extension, veterinary and human health and educational services.
Access to land as a resource has been constrained by a variety of factors, principal among which borders on policy, institutional and legal frameworks that are poorly developed or non- existent hence inappropriate and unenforceable. Large scale investment on land will deprive the farming and pastoralists populations of their land and could lead to worsening food crises as attention could be diverted from staple food production to export crop or fossil fuel production.
The high points of the paper include:
1) Need for government to embark upon advocacy, mobilization and sensitization of members of the public to recognize the negative implication of conflict and poor livestock productivity in our nation’s economies.
2) Mobilize and organize the diverse pastoral communities to adopt improved techniques of livestock production.
3) Need for states and local government to participate in the planning and implementation of an integrated programme for the permanent settlement of pastoralists in their current location in all parts of the state.
4) There is the need to create and gazette additional grazing reserves.
5) State governments should strive to implement the 1980 policy that requires states to acquire, gazette and protect 10% of land for the purpose of pastoral production.
6) Just as much as crop farmers have access to basic needs as well as production inputs, pastoralists should be reached with subsidies in terms of livestock production inputs and marketing outlets.
7) Government should facilitate secured land access for all persons concerned. The law establishing Grazing Reserves should be enforced to guarantee settlers leasehold so that meaningful investment, such as pasture development could be made by settlers.
8) Poor extension contact with livestock producers should be addressed.
9) The local system of conflict prevention and management should be encouraged by formalizing it to get the recognition of the local and state authorities.
10) Access roads, schools, water, veterinary and human health services should be made available to the residents of grazing reserves.
11) Communities that were in existence prior to the establishment of grazing reserves (farming communities) should be officially recognized as enclaves and provided for in future plans grazing reserves developments. This will put to rest vexed issue of illegality of the presence of these farming communities.
12) Grazing Reserves should be demarcated and allotted to pastoralist along family lines. Such demarcation and allotment will ensure that allottees protect and better utilize and manage patches of land allotted to their use.
13) Undertake a comprehensive review of all land legislation with a view to harmonizing and streamlining them to better serve the needs of pastoral communities
14) Establishment of a pastoral relief agency to handle all matters of pastoral distress (emergencies and disasters).
15) Promote Public Private Partnerships by compelling livestock companies in the state to contribute 10% of income earned into a fund to be named pastoral endowment fund.
16) States should lend active support to the passage of proposed grazing reserve development bill at the National Assembly.
Pastoralism, Compensation, Indigene/Settler Dichotomy and Administration of Justice by Prof. Chidi Odinkalu; Chairman of the Governing Board of the National Human Rights Commission, Abuja.
The paper posits that pastoralism as a profession was practiced by a number of ethnic nationalities. Pastoralism as an age long occupation of the nomads could be transformed from the present traditional system into a business or trade to improve income levels of the practitioners. The practitioners are today besieged with a number of challenges in carrying out their occupation. Arising from this are complex issues associated with climate change (desertification), encroachment/outright take-over of grazing reserves areas and stock routes by farmers and elites, indigene/settler syndrome and poor justice system.
The dimension of conflicts arising from the concept of Indigene/Settler dichotomy is alien as the country’s constitution only recognizes citizenship. The profiling of pastoralists who are citizens of the country living in some parts of the country as settlers is limiting their full integration into the communities where they had lived for decades.
The infringement of the fundamental human right of this group of Nigerians is partly responsible for triggering conflicts. These conflicts had degenerated into cycle of violence and were further fuelled by the undertone of religious and tribal colouration by self seeking politicians to advance their selfish interests.
Pastoralists are rarely supported and compensated in the event of losses suffered as a result of natural disasters and violence.
The Role of Pastoralist Communities, Associations in Peace Building and National Security: Country experience of Nigeria, Cameroon, Niger Republic and Commonwealth Secretariat
There were four presentations under this paper each looking at different countries, namely: Nigeria, Central African Republic, Cameroon and Kenya as follows:
(A) The Nigerian Perspective by Prof. Mohammed J. Kuna.
In the past two decades conflict between pastoralists and farmers which constitute one of the most serious national security challenges have become ever more frequent with enormous loss of life, property and the displacement of thousands of Fulbe pastoralists. While the conflicts are found virtually in all parts of Nigeria, they are more concentrated in the central highland of Benue, Plateau, Kaduna, Nassarawa, Kogi and Kwara States
Forces responsible for the continued and expanding conflict include:
· Increased pressure on land
· Changing land use patterns due to climatic and ecological factors.
· Politicization/criminalization of conflict by the political class and criminal gangs.
Peace building efforts showing the importance of community association and informal channels of peace building in conflict management were discussed. Peace and security were described to include wider issues of human security such as health, education, resettlement and reintegration and economic empowerment all of which constitute critical peace building activities. The role of the pastoralists’ communities and associations in peace building as well as the associated challenges and constraints were highlighted.
The paper concludes by challenging both the state, pastoral communities and development partners to collectively pool resources together to support efforts at creating the conditions for peace through long term sustainable community support projects for pastoralists.
(B) Central African Experience by Dr. Jibrin Ibrahim
The Central African perspective on the role of pastoralists communities and associations in peace building and national security was discussed from the point of view of the state’s role of infrastructural development, regulation of law and provision of security and the pastoralists response to the extent to which the state has performed its statutory role.
Current crisis around the escalation of conflicts is more of a state crisis than the society, thus solution to crisis should focus considerably on state building.
The weight of the value in form of cattle in the pastoralists makes them highly vulnerable to the crisis arising from state disintegration which is evident in the high profile marginalization and social execution of pastoralists.
Breakdown of state authorities leads to criminality and criminal gangs are known to always look for values which are easily seen and snatched in the wealth of the pastoralists. The pastoralists being targets of criminal actions and in a bid to protect their value, often times revolt against a non performing state by responding to criminal actions fatally.
This most times also result in disintegration of the society and the community. Unfortunately much of the discourse of the conference has been on the pastoralists issues without a corresponding balance with the state’s inability to perform its functions, the consequences of which include the pastoralists response to states collapse.
(C) The Cameroon Experience by Mbororo Social and Cultural Development Association (MBOSCUDA)
The Cameroon perspective on the role of pastoralist communities and associations in peace building and national security was presented. By the representative of MBOSCUDA which was established in 1992 and seeking to empower the Mbororo Pastoralist to achieve sustainable and equitable development on their terms and to secure their human, social and economic rights as valued active citizens of the Republic of Cameroun.
In response to the increasing conflict between farmers and grazers in Cameroun, a presidential decree was signed creating the Agro-pastoral Commission made up of representatives of government, farmers and grazers with the mandate of managing national lands.
The Commission deliberates on cases of land use and management, farm damages, encroachments etc. and the decisions of the Commission are enforceable by laws via prefectural order.
However, due to the poor funding of the Commission by government, parties in disputes are made to fund the Commission and this has a lot of consequences for justice.
In the light of this, MBOSCUDA promoted alternative conflict resolution mechanism where farmers and grazers are at the centre of events deciding their problems with trusted community members called Dialogue Platform members mediating for an amicable settlement. This strategy has succeeded in building trust and confidence between people who had lived as enemies for long.
(D) The Kenyan Perspective/Experience by the Representative of Kenyan High Commission to Nigeria
In discussing the Kenyan experience attention was drawn to the fact that though there is a sizeable population of nomads in the country, crop farmers are given greater attention while pastoralism is given less attention, thus limiting the pace of modernisation of the livestock sub-sector.
The profiling of nomads as lawless and criminals by the security and media without proper investigation is improper and should be addressed. The negative stereotype has projected the nomads in bad light and set most communities against them.
Gender Dimension in Conflict and Security Situations: The Role of Civil Society by Dr. Hafsat Lawal Kontagora of Nigeria’s Teachers Institute, Kaduna.
Conflicts of great magnitude afflict pastoralists resulting in wanton destruction of life and property. This hinders the actualization of peaceful coexistence and exacerbates the problem of insecurity. Violent conflicts destroy infrastructure, disrupts social ties, diminishes the capacity of society and subjugates them to poverty and strife as vital resources are diverted away.
In these conflict situations, both men and women suffer the consequences severely though differently. Nevertheless, little attention has been paid to whether and how the conflicts and security issues affect the two genders differently. There is therefore the need to study the gender dimensions in form of representative planning and policy. The role of civil society organizations in advancing representative security services, gender specific justice, therapy and conflict resolution is worthy of deployment in mediation processes.
Education, Literacy and Vocational Training for Pastoralists: Implications for National Security by Prof. Rashid Aderinoye Executive Secretary, National Commission for Nomadic Education, Kaduna.
The paper described the pastoralists and their ways of life and geographic distribution. It traced the historical development of nomadic education in Nigeria generating discussion on the critical issues pertaining to the programme and the various policy documents the programme implementation is hinged on.
Unfortunately, in spite of governments initiative of establishing Nomadic Education Programme and an agency under the Federal Ministry of Education to manage its implementation, there are constraints bordering on inadequate funding, lack of commitment and support at the state and local government levels. Weak collaboration between the commission and other agencies and ministries with high stake on the development of pastoralism despite the multi-sectoral approach prescribed for nomadic education implementation further constitute a challenge to the sector. This was hampering speedy and adequate realisation of goals. This neglect, no doubt has serious implication for national security, as education cannot under this circumstance achieve its important role as an instrument for development and national security.
The systematic implementation of the Nomadic Education Programme since inception utilizing viable strategies and approaches that will enable attainment of programme goals was discussed. The paper contends that integrating nomads into national life through provision of relevant, qualitative and basic functional education can only be achieved through an honest support to the integrated and multi-sectoral approach adopted in the Nomadic Education Model Centre development in gazetted grazing reserves. The Nigerian experience of providing access to basic education to the nomads has already been adjudged the best in Africa evidenced by the study tours embarked upon by countries like Ethiopia and Chad.
Support was advocated among others in the areas of improved funding and strengthening of the multi-sectoral approach in NEP implementation so that relevant sectors in charge of provision of social services can intervene in the reserves carved out for nomadic people to encourage settlement, curtail movements and reduce violent clashes and conflicts with the sedentary population. It contends that unless the education and training problems confronting the pastoralists are considered as part of an integrated development approach of all the sectors concerned, security of lives and properties would hardly be assured.
The Role of Media in Shaping Public Perception on Pastoralists, Insecurity, Peace Building and Conflict Resolution by Mr. Segun Adeniyi of Thisday Newspaper.
The paper first defined its task and that is to light a candle in the darkness of national self-doubt and the media’s role in this process. It began by observing that to understand the media and public perception in season of insecurity, requires an understanding of what constitute the media as an institution and what constitutes the sector. Clearly, the media consists of something beyond the specific outlets that deliver news and information. It is so amorphous that it encompasses everything from the universities that train future journalists to the courts that protect their rights. In the broadest sense, the media embraces the television and film entertainment industries, a vast array of regularly published printed material, and even public relations and advertising.
It argued that the mass media serves as a system for communicating messages and symbols to the general populace. It is their function to amuse, entertain, and inform, and to inculcate individuals with the values, beliefs and codes of behaviour that will integrate them into the institutional structures of the larger society.
Adeniyi posited that the "press" is supposed to be a most serious member of that media family, focusing on real life instead of fantasy and serving the widest possible audience. A good generic term for the press in the electronic age is "news media." The emphasis in this definition is on content, not technology or delivery system, because the press can be found these days on the Internet, the fax lines, or the airwaves. The terms "media" and "press" will be used interchangeably in this presentation, being contextually co-terminous. On the other hand, public perception can be seen as the difference between an absolute truth based on facts and a virtual truth shaped by popular opinion, reputation or even prejudices. To underscore this point, let us look at the challenge of the pastoralists.
The paper further argues that in the normal cause of the day, pastoralists leading their animals to grazing lands and watering points, inevitably trespass on farmlands, damage and destroy crops. This leads to instant retaliation and quarrels which sometimes degenerate into large scale violence, loss of lives and property. Reporting such occurrences require sensitivity while analyzing same requires even more. But when professionalism takes flight in reporting crises, distortions flowing from political, ethnic or religious prejudices take centre stage. Unfortunately, this cannot be denied by media practitioners in covering the tension between farmers and pastoralists.
It was observed that though the media has an enormous responsibility in crisis situation, in every country, it is the responsibility of the leadership to protect the political, social, and economic interests of the citizens. Leadership involves finding solutions to difficult problems, ensuring stability of the polity, and guiding the society to prosperity. But a large number of the political leaders of Nigeria today lack the vision, the passion, and the character to effectively deal with the security challenge confronting us.
In Nigeria, the paper posits, the media are sometimes used as proxies in the battle between rival political groups, in the process sowing divisiveness rather than consensus, hate speech instead of sober debate, and suspicion rather than social trust. In these cases, the media contribute to public cynicism and democratic decay.
The paper recommends that with regards to the challenging security situation, there was need for close of collaboration between the media and the security apparatus of the state. The problem, however, is the perception by security agencies over the years that they have a monopoly of patriotism. The paper also recommends that at a time like this therefore, the media should not yield their platform to hate mongers whose polarizing rhetoric could only push our plural society towards its delicate fault-lines. Collectively, both the media and the government should begin to fashion out the requisite strategies necessary to overcome the human and institutional barriers that for decades have held the country back, with a focus on accountability and good governance. In this age of terror, we have to collaborate to chart a new course and embrace a more productive and cooperative form of engagement.
Interactive Session with selected Stakeholders, Active Community Leaders, and Delegates from Conflict Prone zones (Adamawa, Borno, Yobe, Gombe, Taraba, Benue, Bauchi, Plateau, Nassarawa, Zamfara State and other states.
An interactive session was held with selected stakeholders, active community leaders, and delegates from conflict prone states namely; Adamawa, Borno, Yobe, Gombe, Taraba, Benue, Bauchi, Plateau, Nassarawa, Zamfara States and other states. In the course of the interactive session, key issues and problems responsible for conflicts between pastoralist and other resource users were discussed extensively.
The summary of the issues raised and discussed were as follows:
1. Inadequacy of grazing reserves/areas coupled with encroachment of existing grazing reserves and blockage of stock routes.
2. Non enforcement of grazing reserve and stock route laws.
3. Killing and maiming of pastoralists by vigilante groups and bounty hunters.
4. High incidence of banditry, cattle rustling and the fear of infiltration of violent elements who may use the occupational conflicts between pastoralists and farmers to further destabilise the body polity.
5. Allotting of grazing reserves areas by government officials for other uses detrimental to pastoralists.
6. Alleged indiscriminate arrest, detention and extra judicial killings of pastoralists by security agents on the allegation that they are terrorists and insurgents
7. Discrimination against pastoralists and lack of access to basic infrastructural facilities and denial of access to support and stigmatisation as settlers in some communities and states.
8. Abduction, sexual abuse, demands for ransom and killing of pastoralists women are regular occurrences.
9. Lack of support and compensation for affected pastoralists in times of crises and natural disasters.
10. In adequacy of qualified teachers for provision of quality tuition to nomadic children.
11. Extortion of pastoralists and denial of justice by law enforcement agents
12. Diminishing carrying capacities of some grazing reserves areas due unavailability of pastures arising from over grazing and advancing desertification from climate change. Denied of access to Fadama areas because of the introduction of dry season farming.
13. Labelling of fleeing pastoralists from conflicts and insurgency as insurgents thereby resulting in unjust detention and persecution.
14. Influx of undocumented transhumance pastoralists who are unaware of the cropping seasons in different ecological zones.
15. Insecure land tenure, blockage/encroachment of stock routes and grazing areas.
16. Pastoralist’s involvements in accidents on the high ways in the course of migration due to blockage of stock routes and exposing them to motorists demand for damage to repairs.
17. Lack of early warning and response system to conflicts.
18. Politicisation of pastoralist’s and farmer’s conflicts by the elites
19. Erosion of traditional ruler’s powers in conflict resolution resulting in extortion of pastoralists by other intermediaries.
20. Influx of refugees and the resultant over stretching of existing facilities.
21. Pastoralists lack of access to education and social services
22. Kidnapping of pastoralists and demand for ransom before release
Arising from the extensive discussion of the papers presented as well as the comments raised major observations were made. These include:
1. There is an upsurge in conflicts between pastoralists, farmers, and other groups engaged in other forms of production resulting in violent conflicts, loss of lives and properties.
2. There is the urgent need to take pro-active measures to address the exploitation of conflicts between natural resource users by other violent actors to destabilize the peace, economic stability and security of the country and the region;
3. The tranhumance production system is the main source of livelihood to a majority of the people of West and Central Africa and contributes greatly to the economy of these regions. This system is now under threat from a complex of factors, climate change, population growth, ecological, economic, cultural as well as political factors.
4. The various initiatives and interventions by governments in Nigeria in the pastoral and livestock sub-sector to address developmental and security issues have not been fully successful. This necessitates the need for new structural and better alternative approaches to addressing the broad issue of human security for pastoralists;
5. The growing incidence of wrong perception, misrepresentation and stereotyping of pastoralists and pastoralism in public discourses, which goes a long way to shaping a negative image of the pastoralists;
6. Government, the pastoralists, agro-pastoralists, farmers, other natural resource users, civil society, organizations, faith-based organizations, prominent community leaders, women and women groups, the youth groups, traditional institutions and the media, have major and strategic roles to play to ensuring the transparent administration of justice and the peaceful resolutions of disputes through mediation and advocacy between pastoralists and their neighbours.
7. Some States in Nigeria have evolved a community-based “all involved” alternative dispute resolution mechanism that has successfully relied on community-based justice systems to resolve conflicts between pastoralists and farmers.
8. National agencies responsible for development, education, literacy and vocational training programmes of pastoralists play crucial roles in the development of pastoralist communities as well as in ensuring national security.
9. There is need for Nigeria to get on board regional and continental livestock development plans to develop the livestock to realise its full potentials.
10. Despite the fact that conflict and insecurity affects men and women, little attention has been paid to the gender dimension of the impact and resolution.
11. There is inadequate media engagement in understanding pastoralist issues.
Arising from these observations, the conference recommended as follows:
i. That the State, Local Governments, CSOs, traditional institutions. Leaders of pastoralist and farmers should be involved in peaceful resolution of conflicts and effective and transparent administration of justice to achieve an enduring peace between pastoralists and farming communities hence the need to replicate the Gombe and Enugu State peace building efforts in other states.
ii. The police should be proactive in recognising and addressing security challenges involving pastoralists so as to avoid the manipulation and hijacking of the situation by violent actors which could further exacerbate the security challenges.
iii. Nigeria should buy in to the ECOWAS Commission Livestock Strategic Action Plan for the Development of Livestock in West Africa which includes the ECOWAS Transhumance Certificate and strengthen the regional Livestock trade as well as implement the Transhumance Protocol and Regulations, and the Protocol on Free Movement of Goods and Persons.
iv. The need for Federal Ministry of Information, the National Orientation Agency and other agencies to create a platform to re-orientate the print and electronic media on the need for balance reporting of crisis and conflict involving pastoralists and farmers. It has become imperative to have media outfit with national outlook to balance the sensation and overzealousness of private and foreign media stations.
v. The need to revisit the establishment and management of Grazing Reserves systems with a view to gradual establishment of ranches with improved livestock practices for quality. Introduction of livestock tracking and biometric registration of pastoralists as well as the creation of cross-border buffer zones and development of a new satelite technology for mapping out carrying capacity to sustain both the environment and monitor the infiltration of pastoralists by insurgents and criminals.
vi. Diverse pastoral communities should be mobilized and trained to adapt to modern and improved techniques of livestock production that will encourage sedentrization. This also requires the expansion, acquisition and making of the State governments to gazette and protect all grazing areas/grazing reserves in their States and Local Governments.
vii. Review and strengthen the relevant other related Ministries, Departments and Agencies (MDAs), towards the literacy programmes, education and vocational training for pastoralists for easy mobilization towards modernizing the pastoral sector.
viii. Conduct studies to generate data on gender dimensions in conflict and security situations among the pastoralists to aid planning and policy formulation as it affects conflict resolution, gender specific justice, therapy and compensation.
ix. Nigeria should collaborate with her neighbours in areas of information sharing concerning pastoralists movements to enhance security.
x. States and LGAs should be more responsive to the needs of pastoralists, farmers and other natural resource users to prevent and resolve conflicts and security matters.
xi. Given the interconnections that the pastoral production system, the Conference called for a comprehensive livestock sector review to identify, plan and implement short, medium and long term programmes that can address some of the inadequacies in the sector and integrate pastoralists into modern production systems and the market.
The Conference was timely and a well thought out plan towards solving the security challenges between the pastoralists and farmers in West and Central Africa generally and Nigeria in particular. Participants were not only highly impressed by the level of organization and coordination but the logistics were supportive that made it entirely a remarkable success
Drawing participants from all works of life including the high and low in the society with the single aim to discuss a common problem, the resource persons were highly informed in their chosen profession. The discussions were frank and open and far reaching, which informed flexibility and participation to the fullest. Almost every participant left with satisfaction and their hopes were raised to high levels that this time, government is not only willing but committed to solving the problem associated with the pastoralist/farmer conflicts which is now taking a dangerous dimension in Nigeria and the West and Central African regions.
The conference appreciated and commended the Federal Government, the National Security Adviser; for successfully organizing and holding the conference. The conference if the recommendations proffered are implemented to the fullest, most of the problems associated with the current security challenges between pastoralists and farmers would not only be minimized to the barest minimum and the risk of violent actors hijacking or radicalizing elements in the resource use conflict will be eliminated.
Dated at Kaduna this ………..day of ……………………………….2014.